Shortlist: Exhibition as Site - Extended Case Study (China, 1993)
推介館藏:展覽作為場域 — 案例研究(中國,1993 年)

Jane DeBevoise, independent art historian
杜柏貞, 獨立藝術史學家
September 2013

Overview 中文版本

[This Shortlist is produced in conjunction with the symposium ‘Sites of Construction: Exhibitions and the Making of Recent Art History in Asia.’ Taking place from 21 to 23 October 2013, the symposium investigates the implications of exhibitions becoming the primary sites of art historical construction in the region. Organised in four sessions and punctuated by three keynote speeches, the three-day event brings together international scholars, curators, writers, and artists to explore the multiple roles exhibitions play. The present Shortlist, prepared by Jane DeBevoise, accompanies the panel ‘Exhibition as Site – Extended Case Study (China 1993)’ which is a series of conversations with organisers and participants of selected exhibitions that took place in 1993, a watershed moment in the development of Chinese contemporary art.]

Although experimental artists from China had begun to participate in overseas exhibitions since the late 1980s, 1993 was a watershed year. In that year an unusually large number of medium to large scale shows focused almost exclusively on contemporary art from inside mainland China were presented for the first time outside mainland China, in Germany, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy and the United States (such as ‘China Avant-Garde’ in Berlin, ‘China’s New Art, Post 1989’ in Hong Kong, and the Venice Biennale etc.). These exhibitions included a wide range of media – painting, sculpture, installation and even performance, although it was the subset of paintings associated with Political Pop and Cynical Realist styles that achieved disproportionate media attention, to take a highly visible position in the developing canon of Chinese art. What were the political and economic, social and aesthetic urgencies to which these exhibitions were responding? What cultural conventions did these exhibitions contest and what new frameworks of art historical value did they propose? What was at stake for the curators and the artists? How did the site of display, institutional and geographic, inform the curatorial proposition, its shape and reception? How did these exhibitions compare to those taking place inside China at the time? Did the critical response differ outside and inside China, and if so, why? In the continuing absence of museums and academic programs dedicated to the study of recent art from China, what was the impact of these ‘offshore’ exhibitions on artistic practice and the developing narrative of Chinese contemporary art?


[此推介館藏是為配合研討會「建構場域:展覽與亞洲當代藝術史編寫」而羅列的。該研討會由亞洲藝術文獻庫主辦,於2013年10月21至23日舉行,旨在探討展覽如何作為亞洲區內藝術史編寫的場域。研討會分為四個專題環節,並由三個主題講座貫穿其中,與會的國際學者、策展人、作家及藝術家共同探討展覽在區內所擔當的多重角色。本推介館藏由杜柏貞編寫,配合專題環節「展覽作為場域 — 案例研究(中國,1993 年)」,該環節以一系列舉辦於1993 年前後的中國藝術重要展覽為案例,邀請當年籌辦及參與這些展覽的人士一起討論。]

中國實驗藝術早於二十世紀八十年代晚期,已經開始在國外展出,但1993年才是真正的分水嶺。在這一年,為數眾多中至大型、專門展示中國當代藝術的展覽相繼於德國、香港、澳洲、意大利及美國舉辦 (包括柏林的《中國前衛藝術》、香港的《後八九:中國新藝術》及第45屆威尼斯雙年展等)。這些展覽涵蓋繪畫、雕塑、裝置、甚至行為藝術等多種媒介的作品,但由於媒體對有關政治波普和玩世現實主義繪畫的特別關注,令這一小部份作品成為當代中國藝術的「主流」。當年的這些展覽,究竟在回應怎樣的政治經濟、社會美學的迫切狀況?它們在抗衡怎樣的文化傳統,又提出了什麼的藝術史新框架?當年的展覽的策展人和藝術家碰到的最大問題是什麼?展出的場地、機構和地理因素怎樣反映在展覽命題、方式及觀眾對它們的評價?這些展覽和同一時期於國內舉辦的展覽怎麼不同?國內外的評價是否不一?原因為何?中國相對缺乏研究當代中國藝術的藝術館和學術課程,在這情況下,這些「離岸」的展覽對當代中國藝術的發展和論述有怎樣衝擊和影響?


Recommended Readings

Ai Weiwei, Xu Bing, Zeng Xiaojun, eds., Hei pi shu (Black Cover Book), Ai Weiwei, Xu Bing, Zeng Xiaojun, Beijing, 1994
艾未未、徐冰、曾小俊編 ,黑皮書,艾未未,徐冰,曾小俊,北京,1994
Andrews, Julia F., et al., Fragmented Memory: The Chinese Avant-Garde in Exile, Wexner Center for the Arts, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1993
Doran, Valerie C., ed., China’s New Art, Post-1989, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 1993
任卓華編,後八九中國新藝術,漢雅軒, 香港,1993
Doran, Valerie C., ed., China’s New Art, Post-1989, Asia Art Archive, Hong Kong, 2001
任卓華編,後八九中國新藝術,亞洲藝術文獻庫, 香港,2001
Elliott, David, Lydie Mepham, eds., Silent Energy, The Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1993
Fei Dawei, ‘Wenhua youmu zhuyi de xianshixing—Fang weinisi shuangnian zhan zhuxi Ao Liwa (An Interview with Achille Bonito Oliva, Artistic Director of 45th Venice Biennale)’, Hsiung Shih Art Monthly, Taipei, 1993, no. 271, pp 20–27
Fei Dawei, ‘Jingmu de liliang—Fang yingguo niujin xiandai yishu guan guanchang daiwei. Ailuete (An Interview with David Elliott, Curator of Museum of Modern Art, Oxford)’, Artist Magazine, Taipei, 1993, no. 8, pp 214–227
費大為,〈靜穆的力量─訪英國牛津現代藝術館館長戴維.艾略特〉, 藝術家雜誌, 台北,1993年,第8期,第214-227頁
Gao Minglu, China/Avant-Garde, China Art Gallery, Beijing, 1989
Guan Ren, ‘Berlin Chinese Avant-garde Art Exhibition: an Interview with HANS VAN DIJK ’, Hanmo Art News, 4 May 1993, p 2 [not yet available] 觀人,〈柏林《中國前衛藝術展》 ─訪組織者漢斯〉,翰墨藝訊,1993年5月4日,第2頁
Kong Changan (pen name: Chan, Lauk'ung), ‘Ten Years of the Chinese Avant-garde: Waiting for the Curtain to Fall’, Flash Art, Milan, January & February 1992, pp 110–114 [not yet available]
Kong Changan, ‘Bu lengmo—45 jie weinisi shuangnian zhan “kaifang zhan 93” tulu zhuanwen’ (‘Concerned-The 45th Biennial Art Exhibition’), Artist Magazine, Taipei, 1993, no.6, pp 394–403
孔長安,〈不冷漠:45屆威尼斯雙年展「開放展’93」圖錄專文〉,藝術家雜誌, 台北,1993年,第6期,第394-403頁
Noth, Jochen, et al., eds., China Avant-garde, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, 1993
The First 1990’s Biennial Art Fair Guangzhou, China (Oil Painting Section), Sichuan Meishu Chubanshe, Chengdu, 1992
中國廣州 . 首屆九十年代藝術雙年展(油畫部份)作品文獻, 四川美術出版社,成都,1992。
Solomon, Andrew, ‘Their Irony, Humor (and Art) Can Save China’, The New York Times Magazine, New York City, 1993, no. 6, pp 42–51, 66, 70–72
Wang Lin, Chinese Fine Arts in 1990's: Experiences in Fine Arts of China, 1993
Xinsheng dai yishuzhan: Qingzhu ‘Beijing qingnian bao’ fukan shi zhounian (New Generation Art: Celebrating the 10th Anniversary of the Resuming Publication of Beijing Youth News), Beijing Qingnian Baoshe , Beijing, 1991
新生代藝術展: 慶祝《北京青年報》復刊十周年,北京青年報社,北京,1991
XLV Esposizione Internationale d'Arte 1993: La Biennale di Venezia—Punti cardinali dell'arte (45th International Exhibition of Art 1993: Venice Biennale—Cardinal Points of Art), Marsilio Editori, Venice, 1993
Yang Jinsong, ‘On ’93 Berlin Chinese Avant-garde Art Exhibition’, Jiangsu Art Monthly, Nanjing, 1993, no. 6, pp 3–5
楊勁松,〈不是中國浪潮的浪潮 不是歐洲模式的模式─評93’Berlin中國前衛藝術展〉,江蘇畫刊,南京,1993年,第6期,第3-5頁
Yang Jinsong, et al., ‘Special Column of the 45th Biennial Art Exhibition, Venice’, Jiangsu Art Monthly, Nanjing, 1993, no. 11