More than two hundred artists from forty-one countries took part in the 2004 Gwangju Biennale. The exhibition introduced a new selection method: a Viewer-Participant system. Under the system, viewers were invited to participate as producers of art rather than traditional consumers of art. The methodology took viewer opinions into account, thereby democratizing art's operating practices, and also expanded the artistic canon, redefining while broadening its parameters.

With 'A Grain of Dust A Drop of Water' as its theme, the biennale aimed to create 'a basis for cultural discourse informed by Eastern philosophy' and to reflect the cultural origin of Korea. Kerry Brougher, the artistic director of the biennale, also commented, 'In some sense, dust and water are embedded in most every work of art, whether or not the elements appear in the work, for the cycle of creation and destruction is often at the core of the artist's creative efforts'.

Other participating artists include: El Anatsui, Marc Quinn, Dendell Geers, Muyiwa Osifuye, Emily Jacir, Leonid Sokov, Antoni Muntadas, Jim Sanborn, Malam, Ilka Meyer, Marjetica Potrc, Kelly Richardson, Raquel Schwartz, Asa Elzen, Waltercio Caldas, Ibrahim Nasrallah, Teresa Margolles, Pablo Cardoso, Jimmie Durham, Zilla Leutenegger, Ahmet Oktem, Magdalena Jetelova, Marco Maggi, Nayia Frangouli, Lyudmila Gorlova, Lucy Orta, The Kingpins, Annie Ratti, Zwelethu Mthethwa, Brian Jungen, Mounir Fatmi, Jota Castro, Wangechi Mutu, Jennifer Allora & Guillermo Calzadilla, Russell Crotty, Jennifer Steinkamp, Alfredo & Isabel Aquilizan, Michael Parekowhai, Bruna Esposito, Barbara Edelstein, Eva Marisaldi, Richard Hamilton, Pierre Huyghe, Gerhard Richter, Edward Ruscha, Eduardo Kac, Daniel Pflumm, Monika Goetz, Mike Marshall, Kolkoz

The catalogue includes preface by honorary chairman Kwangtae Park and chairman Pochun Kim, artist statements, brief biographical information and correspondence between artists and viewer-participants. An appendix is also provided.

Alternative title

A Grain of Dust A Drop of Water

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Location code EX.KOR.GWB.2004



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Chapter headings
The Spectator, Who are They?

- LEE Yongwoo, 이용우

Dust and Water


Matter of Engagement


Modalities for a Relational Art

- Chika OKEKE

Between Art and Reality

- Roberto PINTO

The Return of Art, the Reverse Evolution of an Aesthetics

- RHEE Wonil, 이원일

2004 Gwangju Biennale
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2004 Gwangju Biennale, 2004 광주비엔날레: 먼지한톨 물한방울